JDK 19: The new features in Java 19

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Java Progress Package 19, due this September, is now function-total, acquiring just achieved an original rampdown phase. 7 options concentrate on the launch including structured concurrency, document designs, a preview of a international purpose and memory API, and support for the open up source Linux/RISC-V instruction set architecture (ISA).

With this hottest milestone in the launch course of action for normal Java, other prepared capabilities these types of as common generics and benefit objects will have to wait for a afterwards version of the platform. JDK 19 follows the March 22 arrival of JDK 18. Common Java is on a six-month launch cadence.

JDK 19 is slated to be officially unveiled for manufacturing use on September 20, preceded by a 2nd rampdown period beginning July 21, and launch candidates to be released August 11 and August 25. Early entry builds of JDK 19 can be accessed from jdk.java.internet/19. The JDK 19 features involve:

  • Structured concurrency, in an incubator period, is intended to simplify multithreaded programming by means of a structured concurrency library. This concurrency treats various tasks managing in various threads as a one unit of perform, to streamline mistake managing and cancellation. Reliability and observability are enhanced.
  • A preview of file styles, to deconstruct document values. Document patterns and sort patterns can be nested to enable a declarative, impressive, and composable kind of data navigation and processing. Aims of the proposal include extending pattern matching to express extra sophisticated, composable info queries though not changing the syntax or semantics of form designs. This proposal builds on pattern matching for instanceof, sent in JDK 16  in March 2021. Long run options may possibly call for report styles to be extended with capabilities this sort of as array designs and vararg patterns. Report patterns is section of Project Amber, an exertion to take a look at and incubate smaller sized, efficiency-oriented Java functions.
  • A preview of a international purpose and memory API, which would introduce an API by which Java systems can interoperate with code and info outdoors the Java runtime. By proficiently invoking foreign capabilities (i.e., code outside the Java runtime) and safely and securely accessing foreign memory (i.e., memory not managed by the JVM) the API allows Java packages to simply call native libraries and procedure native knowledge without having the risk and brittleness of the Java Native Interface (JNI). The foreign purpose and memory API brings together two earlier incubating APIs: the foreign memory accessibility API and the international linker API. The foreign purpose and memory API was previously incubated in JDK 17 and reincubated in JDK 18. The proposal’s aims involve relieve of use, performance, generality, and protection.
  • A preview of digital threads, which are lightweight threads that significantly decrease the exertion of writing, maintaining, and observing higher-throughput, concurrent apps. Ambitions incorporate enabling server apps written in the very simple thread-for every-request design to scale with near-ideal components utilization, enabling current code that works by using the java.lang Thread API to undertake digital threads with minimum adjust, and help troubleshooting, debugging, and profiling of virtual threads with existing JDK instruments. It is not a intention of this proposal to alter the fundamental concurrency product in Java or provide a new data parallelism assemble in possibly the Java language or Java libraries. Nor is it a purpose to take out the common implementation of threads or to silently migrate present apps to use virtual threads.
  • A 3rd preview of pattern matching for switch expressions and statements, extending sample matching to swap, to let an expression to be tested in opposition to a variety of styles, each with a certain action, so elaborate knowledge-oriented queries can be expressed concisely and safely. This functionality earlier was previewed in JDK 17 and JDK 18. The third preview would include refinements like the alternative of guarded designs with when clauses in change blocks. Also, the runtime semantics of a pattern switch when the benefit of the selector expression is null are much more closely aligned with legacy change semantics. The plan’s ambitions consist of increasing the expressiveness and applicability of switch expressions and statements by permitting styles to seem in circumstance labels. Other objectives involve allowing developers to take it easy the historic null-hostility of swap when ideal, expanding the protection of change statements and making certain that present swap expressions and statements go on to compile with no variations and execute with similar semantics.
  • A fourth incubation of a vector API that would convey vector computations that reliably compile at runtime to best vector guidance on supported CPU architectures, therefore obtaining overall performance excellent to equal scalar computations. Builders making use of the API obtain a way to produce sophisticated vector algorithms in Java, employing the HotSpot auto-vectorizer but with a user product that can make vectorizations more predictable and sturdy. The vector API formerly was incubated into JDK 16, JDK 17, and JDK 19.
    Improvements to the API proposed for JDK 19 incorporate enhancements to load and retail outlet vectors to and from MemorySegments, as described by the Overseas Functionality and Memory API preview. JDK 19 would also incorporate two cross-lane vector operations, compress and extend, alongside one another with a complementary vector mask compress procedure. The compress vector operation maps lanes of a supply vector, picked by a mask, to a place vector in lane order, when the grow operation does the inverse. The compress operation is handy in filtering query results.
    In another addition to the vector API, bitwise integral lanewise functions would be expanded, which include functions these kinds of counting the number of one particular bits, reversing the purchase of bits, and compressing and growing bits. Plans of the API bundled getting clear and concise, platform-agnostic, getting responsible runtime and compilation overall performance on x64 and AArch64 architectures, and enabling “sleek” degradation, for conditions in which a vector computation can’t be entirely expressed at runtime as a sequence of vector operations.
  • With the Linux/RISC-V port, Java would get assist for a components instruction set that is presently supported by a large range of language toolchains. RISC-V in fact is a spouse and children of similar ISAs. The Linux/RISC-V port would only assist the RV64GV configuration of RISC-V, a typical function 64-bit ISA that features vector guidance. The builders of Java could look at other RISC-V configurations in the upcoming.

The port would help the pursuing HotSpot VM possibilities: the template interpreter, C1 (customer) JIT compiler, C2 (server) JIT compiler, and all present-day mainline garbage collectors such as ZGC and Shenandoah. The true porting is almost comprehensive the concentration of the JDK Improvement Proposal (JEP) is integration of the port into the JDK mainline repository.

Like JDK 18, JDK 19 is owing to be a small-term release, with only 6 months of top rated-stage, Leading assist.

The preceding release, JDK 17, was a Very long Expression Support (LTS) launch, with quite a few decades of assistance. It arrived September 14, 2021.

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